“ஆய கலைகள் அறுபத்துநான்கினையும்” என்று பலரும் சொல்லக் கேள்விபட்டிருக்கின்றோம்.
A listing of 64 kinds of Arts practiced by Tamils since ancient times.
“Most of the Hindu scriptures talk of gods such as Hanuman of having learned the 64 arts. Have you ever wondered about what these arts are? Here is the actual list of the 64 divine arts that the great kings of India were well versed in.This data is a popular ancient treatise written by Vatsayanaar.”
Who is Vatsayanaar??
Vātsyāyanaar is the name of a Hindu philosopher in the Vedic tradition who is believed to have lived during time of the Guptha Empire (4th to 6th centuries AD) in India. His name appears as the author of the Kama sutra and of Nyāya Sutra Bhāshya, the first commentary on Gotama’s Nyaya Sutras.
When I say Kama Sutra I usually feel so embarrassed but realised there’s nothing to feel shy about, but hey it’s human nature and we have to know about that side of biology inorder to reproduce.
The first texts in the Hindu literature were written in Sanskrit and Tamil thus the 64 arts are in Sanskrit and translated into English below.
(1) gita — art of singing
(2) vadya — art of playing on musical instruments.
(3) nritya — art of dancing.
(4) natya — art of theatricals.
(5) alekhya — art of painting.
(6) viseshakacchedya — art of painting the face and body with colored unguents and cosmetics.
(7) tandula-kusuma-bali-vikara — art of preparing offerings from rice and flowers.
(8) pushpastarana — art of making a covering of flowers for a bed.
(9) dasana-vasananga-raga — art of applying preparations for cleansing the teeth, cloths and painting the body.
(10) mani-bhumika-karma — art of making the groundwork of jewels.
(11) sayya-racana — art of covering the bed.
(12) udaka-vadya — art of playing on music in water.
(13) udaka-ghata — art of splashing with water.
(14) citra-yoga — art of practically applying an admixture of colors.
(15) malya-grathana-vikalpa — art of designing a preparation of wreaths.
(16) sekharapida-yojana — art of practically setting the coronet on the head.
(17) nepathya-yoga — art of practically dressing in the tiring room.
(18) karnapatra-bhanga — art of decorating the tragus of the ear.
(19) sugandha-yukti — art of practical application of aromatics.
(20) bhushana-yojana — art of applying or setting ornaments
(21) aindra-jala — art of jugglery.
(22) kaucumara — a kind of art.
(23) hasta-laghava — art of sleight of hand.
(24) citra-sakapupa-bhakshya-vikara-kriya — art of preparing varieties of salad, bread, cake and delicious food.
(25) panaka-rasa-ragasava-yojana — art of practically preparing palatable drinks and tinging draughts with red color.
(26) suci-vaya-karma — art of needleworks and weaving.
(27) sutra-krida — art of playing with thread.
(28) vina-damuraka-vadya — art of playing on lute and small x-shaped drum.
(29 -a) prahelika — art of making and solving riddles.
(29-b) pratimala — art of caping or reciting verse for verse as a trial for memory or skill.
(30) durvacaka-yoga — art of practicing language difficult to be answered by others.
(31) pustaka-vacana — art of reciting books.
(32) natikakhyayika-darsana — art of enacting short plays and anecdotes
(33) kavya-samasya-purana — art of solving enigmatic verses.
(34) pattika-vetra-bana-vikalpa — art of designing preparation of shield, cane and arrows.
(35) tarku-karma — art of spinning by spindle.
(36) takshana — art of carpentry.
(37) vastu-vidya — art of engineering.
(38) raupya-ratna-pariksha — art of testing silver and jewels.
(39) dhatu-vada — art of metallurgy.
(40) mani-raga jnana — art of tinging jewels.
(41) akara jnana — art of mineralogy.
(42) vrikshayur-veda-yoga — art of practicing medicine or medical treatment, by herbs.
(43) mesha-kukkuta-lavaka-yuddha-vidhi — art of knowing the mode of fighting of lambs, cocks and birds.
(44) suka-sarika-prapalana — art of maintaining or knowing conversation between male and female cockatoos.
(45) utsadana — art of healing or cleaning a person with perfumes.
(46) kesa-marjana-kausala — art of combing hair.
(47) akshara-mushtika-kathana — art of talking with letters and fingers.
(48) mlecchita-kutarka-vikalpa — art of fabricating barbarous or foreign sophistry.
(49) desa-bhasha-jnana — art of knowing provincial dialects.
(50) pushpa-sakatika-nirmiti-jnana — art of knowing prediction by heavenly voice or knowing preparation of toy carts by flowers.
(51) yantra-matrika — art of mechanics.
(52) dharana-matrika — art of the use of amulets
(53) samvacya — art of conversation.
(54) manasi kavya-kriya — art of composing verse mentally.
(55) kriya-vikalpa — art of designing a literary work or a medical remedy.
(56) chalitaka-yoga — art of practicing as a builder of shrines called after him.
(57) abhidhana-kosha-cchando-jnana — art of the use of lexicography and meters.
(58) vastra-gopana — art of concealment of cloths.
(59) dyuta-visesha — art of knowing specific gambling.
(60) akarsha-krida — art of playing with dice or magnet.
(61) balaka-kridanaka — art of using children’s toys.
(62) vainayiki vidya — art of enforcing discipline.
(63) vaijayiki vidya — art of gaining victory.
(64) vaitaliki vidya — art of awakening master with music at dawn.
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